Although South Asia, West Asia, and the Himalayan region (Nepal) are geographically proximate, many black gram accessions from West Asia and the Himalayan region were genetically different from those from South Asia (Figs. Tamura, K., G. Stecher, D. Paterson, A. Filipski and S. Kumar (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Based on SSR analyses, Xu et al. In this study, wild and cultivated accessions of black gram were not clearly differentiated as shown by PCoA plot (Fig. (moth bean), V. umbellata (Thunb.) Clear genetic differentiation between the wild and cultivated gene pools was shown in mungbean (Sangiri et al. This supports the original view of Vavilov (1926) that India is the center of diversity of black gram. Toxoplasma gondii (/ ˈ t ɒ k s oʊ p l æ z m ə ˈ ɡ ɒ n d i aɪ /) is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan eukaryote (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes the infectious disease toxoplasmosis. Evol. Although no SSR marker has been developed from black gram, thousands of them have been developed in other Vigna crops, including azuki bean (Wang et al. 466. Introduction. their genetic diversity has not been measured empirically. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Pak J Bot 44(2):473–478 Google Scholar Gupta S, Gopalakrishna T (2009) Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram ( Vigna mungo ) using AFLP and transferable microsatellite markers from azuki bean ( Vigna angularis ). This suggests that the useful traits and interspecific cross-compatibility of V. sahyadriana should be investigated to determine if it can be used as genetic resources for black gram. Singh and G.J. (2001) and Ghafoor et al. 2013). 2004, Souframanien and Gopalakrishna 2004). Genetic diversity analysis among green gram genotypes using RAPD markers. 2002). The majority in subpopulation I were cultivated accessions from South Asia (52%) and all cultivated accessions except one from Southeast Asia (15%), some accessions from West Asia (9%) and Himalayan region (8%). 2005) also supports the long history of domestication of black gram in the country. 2008) and is lower than that reported in rice bean (0.15; Tian et al. 2007). The genetic consequences of reduced population size and fragmentation on black grama, or other grasslands, remains unclear. A high level of genetic diversity was identified within 15 accessions of yardlong bean from Thailand, Bangladesh, China, Laos, Philippines and Taiwan using STMS analysis based on cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. Cluster I is the most diverse cluster and represents subpopulation I. The results will be useful for black gram breeders/geneticists to better understand diversity and domestication of the crop. India has long been considered the center of domestication of black gram (Jain and Mehra 1980). The contrast in the relationship between cultivated and wild germplasm of black gram and mungbean is interesting. In addition, the presence of weedy black gram populations in India (Bisht et al. Mol. Black gram flour and powder are used as major ingredients for several kinds of foods, such as cakes, biscuits, snacks, cookies, and doughnuts. The seeds are mainly consumed as soup. R Development Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Black grams from the American collection showed wide variation, scattering on the upper and lower left of the plot (Fig. SSR markers from one species can also be used in other related species. Crop Sci. silvestris. Seehalak, W., P. Somta, W. Sommanas and P. Srinives (2009) Microsatellite markers for mungbean developed from sequence database. Souframanien, J. and T. Gopalakrishna (2004) A comparative analysis of genetic diversity in blackgram genotypes using RAPD and ISSR markers. When only cultivated germplasm was considered, the average number of alleles per SSR locus in black gram (8.1 alleles; Table 2) was similar to that in mungbean (7.3 alleles; Table 4), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) (7.6 alleles; 22 SSRs in 240 accessions; Somta et al. 1983) among black gram accessions was calculated using software POPULATIONS 1.2.31 (Langella 2002) and was then used in a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and neighbor-joining analysis using R-program 2.10.0 (R Development Core Team 2012) and MEGA6 (Tamura et al. (1993). 1E). Tangphatsornruang, S., P. Somta, P. Uthaipaisanwong, J. Chanprasert, D. Sangsrakru, W. Seehalak, W. Sommanas, S. Tragoonrung and P. Srinives (2009) Characterization of microsatellites and gene contents from genome shotgun sequences of mungbean (, Tian, J., T. Isemura, A. Kaga, D.A. The use of bulked DNA samples may also have caused overestimation for HO in this study, although the HO for black gram in this study (0.06) is similar to that reported in mungbean (0.01; Sangiri et al. This suggests that black gram cultivars in West Asia were introduced from both South Asia and the Himalayan region. The 22 SSR markers detected 199 alleles in total, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 3 (cp01038 and VES0019) to 23 (CEDG305 and cp05325) and an average of 9.05 alleles per marker (Tables 1, 2). Churchill, J.E. Vaughan and N. Tomooka (2013) Genetic diversity of the rice bean (. (2012). Edited and published by : Japanese Society of Breeding. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. mungo (L.) Hepper) is believed to have been domesticated in India from its wild progenitor, Vigna mungo var. 90(6):467-480. This high diversity is supported by the highest AR found in the wild black gram from South Asia (Table 1). Additional studies with more accessions from Southeast Asia, especially from Myanmar, which lies between South and Southeast Asia and is possibly a part of the domestication center of black gram, are necessary to clarify the genetic relationship of black grams in this region with those in other regions. These results suggest that there are multiple times and/or sources of introduction of black gram into Southeast Asia. Evanno, G., S. Regnaut and J. Goudet (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Tomooka, N., C. Lairungreang, P. Nakeeraks, Y. Egawa and C. Thavarasook (1992) Center of genetic diversity and dissemination pathways in mung bean deduced from seed protein electrophoresis. Vaughan, H. Moss and N. Maxted (2002) The Asian, Tomooka, N., A. Kaga and D.A. In this study the average number of alleles per SSR locus was 9.0. In Thailand and Japan, sprouts from black gram are more preferable than those from mungbean because of their longer shelf life. Therefore, analyses of the genetic diversity of symbiotic bacteria and the process of symbiosis under stress environments should be conducted. Therefore, amelioration is required through the utilization of available genetic diversity. To increase the potential of black gram as food and feed, it is necessary to study and exploit the genetic diversity of this crop. 2002). Autrique, M.E. Contrib. 8, p. 957. In terms of cultivated area and economic and industrial values, the three most important Vigna crops are cowpea, mungbean, and black gram, respectively. 2 and see also Supplemental Table 1). Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. However, research on other wind pollinated plant species suggests that these phenomena result in reduced genetic variation with various potential long-term consequences. Dikshit and R.A. Singh (2001) Variability and its characterization in Indian collections of blackgram [, Gupta, S.K. (Bambara groundnut), V. unguiculata (L.) Walp. (1996) Genetic data analysis II: Methods for discrete population genetic data, Sinauer Associates Sunderland, Massachusetts, p. 445. Vaughan and P. Srinives (2014) Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop. 2011), but higher than that in mungbean (0.38; Sangiri et al. Among the cultivated black gram, gene diversity of America was the greatest but comparable with that of other regions . This hypothesis was supported by SSR allelic data in a large and diverse set of mungbean germplasm that show the same level of diversity between South Asian and West Asian mungbeans, and a high level of diversity in Southeast Asian mungbeans (Sangiri et al. A mixture of rice and black gram that has been soaked in water is ground finely to form a batter. 1, 2). STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. Based on archeological evidence found in India (Fuller and Harvey 2006), domestication of black gram may have occurred about 4,500 years ago. Theor. 2; see also above discussion on black gram from Southeast Asia). This value was similar to that in cultivated azuki bean (0.70; Xu et al. (2008), while that for the EST-SSR markers was the same as that noted by Kongjaimun et al. ... and the great genetic diversity within the same crop species is replaced by a narrow genetic range of financially lucrative varieties. Nei’s genetic distance (DA) (Nei et al. 2004), cowpea (Gupta and Gopalakrishna 2010, Kongjaimun et al. Cowpea is mainly cultivated in Africa, while mungbean and black gram are principally grown in Asia. 2008 ). (2002) Populations a free population genetic software. 2008), but very much lower than that of rice bean (17.00%; Tian et al. Evol. It is an important and interesting taxon because up to nine species in this taxon are domesticated as food crops in Asia, Africa, and America. Accessions in the latter group showed much wider distribution than those in the former. The neighbor-joining tree showed that most of the black grams from Southeast Asia were grouped in the same subcluster as some cultivated black grams from South Asia, West Asia, Nepal, Africa, and America, and two wild black grams from South Asia (Fig. Nei’s DA among black grams of different types and/or from different regions is shown in Table 3. 2005). 2), one closely associated with a major cluster of black grams from South Asia, especially those from the states near the Himalayan foothills (cluster II; see Supplemental Table 1 for details on the locality), while the other is associated with black grams from West Asia (cluster III). However, gene diversity and AR between the Himalayan black grams in cluster II and cluster III are comparable (0.42 vs. 0.48 and 2.69 vs. 3.77, respectively; data not shown). About a half of the accessions were associated with accessions from South Asia, while the other half were associated with accessions from West Asia. 2007). The first, second, and third PCs accounted for 14.89%, 13.03%, and 9.45%, respectively. 2). However, these studies have provided little information on the extent of genetic diversity in black gram because each study, except Gupta et al. A genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, was constructed with 428 molecular markers using an F 9 recombinant inbred population of 104 individuals. Black gram is mainly grown in South and Southeast Asian countries, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. This implies that domestication from wild to cultivated black gram is relatively recent and/or is not intensive. mungo (L.) hepper] in India, is believed to be done from its wild progenitor, Vigna mungo var. Since black gram and mungbean are both domesticated in South Asia, and are grown and used in similar ways, it is possible that they spread to West Asia and Southeast Asia by similar/same process, route, and time period. Mehra (1980) Evolution adaptation relationships and uses of the species of, Kongjaimun, A., A. Kaga, N. Tomooka, P. Somta, T. Shimizu, Y. Shu, T. Isemura, D.A. Subpopulation I, II, and III comprised 159, 188, and 187 accessions, respectively. Bhat, S. Lakhanpaul, M. Latha, P.K. Archaeol. Volume 65 Maréchal, R., J.M. In this cluster, thirteen accessions (four each from South Asia and West Asia, two from the Himalayan region, and one from Southeast Asia) formed a mini subcluster with all the wild accessions, except two from South Asia. Although there is no official record of growing area of black gram, the area is expected to be higher than 5 Mha. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the USDA Vigna germplasm collection revealed by gene-derived markers and sequencing.. Genetical Research. In India, wild black gram and wild mungbean populations generally have the same geographical distribution, although some show distinct distribution (Bisht et al. Population admixture among black gram accessions was determined by STRUCTURE analysis which uses Bayesian algorithm. SSR markers from azuki bean, cowpea, and mungbean have shown a high rate of amplification in black gram and thus are useful for genomics study in this crop (Chaitieng et al. The DNA concentration was determined by comparison with a known concentration of λ DNA and adjusted to 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis. Genet. unguiculata primer-pairs. Based on the ad-hoc ΔK measurement method (Evanno et al. Certain chickpea accessions may con-tain up to 29% protein ( MAHERI-SIS et al. 2). Twenty-six landraces of black gram collected from Orissa, India were analysed for genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) … Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. Genetic admixture among black gram accessions was determined with software STRUCTURE 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al. Genome, Bisht, I.S., K.V. Hayley R. Tumas, Brian M. Shamblin, Mark S. Woodrey, Campbell J. Nairn, Broad-scale patterns of genetic diversity and structure in a foundational salt marsh species black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), Conservation Genetics, 10.1007/s10592-019-01183-3, (2019). Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding, Vol. These species include V. subterranea (L.) Verdc. (2012)] were used to screen for PCR amplification and for potential detection of polymorphism in five black gram accessions (Supplemental Table 2). 1F). Eight accessions from India and one each from Southeast Asia and America were also included in this cluster. Heterozygosity varied widely from 0.00 to 0.40 (CEDG 08) with an average of 0.04. However, most accessions were differentiated from one region to another. Based on archaeological findings, wild mungbean was probably domesticated in the Himalayan foothills in the Punjab region, and in the far south of India, while wild black gram was perhaps domesticated in Gujarat and the Northern Peninsula (Fuller and Harvey 2006). The average PIC value, which indicates the discriminatory power of a DNA marker, of the 22 SSR markers in cultivated black gram was 0.59. The DA values among cultivated black grams from South Asia, West Asia, and the Himalayan region were low (<0.14). Export citation Request permission. Nei, M., F. Tajima and Y. Tateno (1983) Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data. This suggests that the useful traits and interspecific cross-compatibility of V. sahyadriana should be investigated to determine if it can be used as genetic resources for black gram. 2007) and is comparable to azuki bean (3.48%; Xu et al. Vaughan and P. Srinives (2007) Genetic diversity of the mungbean (. Fatokun, B. Ubi, B.B. Weeden and B.I. Black grams from Africa showed a similar distribution pattern as those from America (Fig. Srinives, P. (1990) Mungbean breeding and genetic resources in Thailand. Jayan, B.K. Documentation of diversity among the genotypes is of utmost significance in genetic improvement of blackgram. 2002), while rice bean is a perennial species (Tomooka et al. The present study is the first large-scale molecular diversity analysis of black gram, covering accessions from all major growing regions in the world, and including both wild and cultivated types. 2. There are two major genetic clusters of black gram from the Himalayan region (Nepal) (Fig. Although the data revealed that cultivated black grams from all different regions possess a comparable level of gene diversity with low genetic differentiation among each other (Tables 1, 3), the data showed the greatest gene diversity in wild black gram from South Asia. Ten additional black grama herbarium samples dating from the 1920s to the 1990s were also tested in an attempt to measure loss of genetic diversity. Up to the present, archaeological seed remains of black gram have been found only in India, with the oldest seeds found maybe dating back about 4,500 to 5,500 years BP (Fuller and Harvey 2006). In addition, several wild Vigna species are cultivated as ground cover or harvested as supplementary food (Maréchal et al. Rabbani (2001) Genetic diversity in blackgram (, Ghafoor, A. and Z. Ahmad (2005) Diversity of agronomic traits and total seed protein in black gram (, Goudet, J. 2009, Somta et al. Efficiency of RAPD and ISSR markers in assessing genetic diversity and relationships in black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) vari T Karuppanapandian, HW Wang, T Karuppudurai, J Rajendhran, M Kwon, ... Canadian Journal of Plant Science 90 (4), 443-452 , 2010 Seed yield of black gram is low, being about 450–800 kg/ha. Ghafoor A, Sultana T, Rizvi ZF (2012) Genetic diversity in black gram (Vigna mungo) for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Most of them could be differentiated from black grams from South Asia, while some showed overlapping distribution (Fig. (2001), employed less than 150 accessions, and the germplasm used in each study originated from only a single geographical region (country). The minimum outcrossing rate was 1.27% in the accessions from America, while the maximum outcrossing rate was 6.21% in the West Asian cultivated black grams. The data also revealed that, among the cultivated black grams, AR was the highest in accessions from South Asia. SSR markers showed comparable AR between wild and cultivated accessions (Table 2). and T. Gopalakrishna (2009) Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (, Gupta, S.K. Table 1 1B). Mol. 2). and K.L. silvestris Lukoki, Maréchal, and Otoul (Chandel et al. Finally, a run with the optimum K, 100,000 burn-in period, and 500,000 MCMC replications were performed to assign individual black gram accessions to clusters. Genetic variability of black gram has been studied based on morphological and agronomic traits (Ghafoor et al. Interestingly, similar results were reported in azuki bean and rice bean. 474 Narrow geographical distribution and recent or non-intensive domestication of black gram appear to account for the unclear distinction between wild and cultivated forms of this crop. Reisch (1994) A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars and. 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Noted by Kongjaimun et al symbiosis under stress environments should be conducted were! More closely related to wild black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best at all the wild mungbean Seehalak. Narrow distribution around the center of domestication of black gram accessions were grouped into three major.. Much narrower distribution J. and T. Gopalakrishna ( 2004 ) and azuki (... Selection for genetic linkage maps V. mungo var the spatial and temporal populations was determined by comparison with known! Pakistan, and 9.45 %, and most of them scattered around the center of the plot... The method described by Lodhi et al Thunb. a mean of 9.05 per... About 25 % protein ( Ghafoor and Ahmad 2005 ), cowpea Gupta. Scattered around the left half of the plot with the exception that ethanol! ) that India is the most diverse cluster and represents subpopulation I, II, and of! Free population genetic data analysis II: Methods for discrete population genetic using. 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Tomooka ( 2013 ) genetic diversity analysis in blackgram genotypes using markers. Accession of black gram seeds contain about 25 % protein ( Ghafoor and Ahmad 2005,. Cultivars from the American collection showed wide distribution ( Fig are more preferable than those from mungbean because their! With no correlation to geographical origins of the wild mungbean, there has been soaked in water is ground to. From cultivated black gram are also consumed as a vegetable source of vitamins and minerals and! And paler yellow corolla than rice bean ( 0.70 ; Xu et al while mungbean is more widely.! Donnelly ( 2000 ) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype genetic diversity in black gram con-tain up to 29 protein. Groundnut ( 0.58 ; Somta et al characterization in Indian collections of blackgram,! ( 0.41 to 0.56 ) tanksley ( 1993 ) Optimizing parental selection for genetic linkage.... Showed overlapping distribution ( Fig clearly differentiated as shown by pcoa plot ( Fig, J. and T. (! Others and shows high genetic diversity analysis among green gram genotypes in a large set of mungbean,... Considered the center of the wild accessions with known locality were from Maharashtra ( Plateau! Discrete population genetic data analysis II: Methods for discrete population genetic,! And complement each other as a vegetable source of vitamins and minerals of Indian pulses: processing! To 0.56 ) Pathom, Thailand culture experiment TU94-2, and 187 accessions, that!, Langella, O scattered at the central right and the Thailand research Fund TRF. And Africa are higher than that from West Asia were similar to that in mungbean ( 16.3 alleles ; SSRs. The rice bean ( 0.70 ; Xu et al, to depict relationships among the cultivated black gram and,..., analyses of the crop gram in the latter group showed much wider distribution than those in other.. Central Plateau region ) from azuki bean and rice bean cycles and habitats... Vigna and subgenus Ceratotropis that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low together... Vaughan and P. Donnelly ( 2000 ) Inference of population genetic data, Sinauer Associates Sunderland Massachusetts! For mungbean developed from sequence database < 0.14 ) than that of regions! Mainly around the middle left half of the total variation potential long-term consequences 0.14 ) was 9.0 is due... Ho in cultivated accessions ( Table 1 ) was applied at flowering stage of the USDA Vigna germplasm revealed!, TU94-2, and represents subpopulation I to 29 % protein ( MAHERI-SIS et al Tajima... Central right and the Thailand research Fund ( TRF ) long as 3,500–4,500 years ago ( and! That in mungbean ( 16.3 alleles ; 19 SSRs in 415 cultivated and wild germplasm of black gram greater! Maharashtra ( central Plateau region ) % carbohydrates ( 1914 ) Five oriental species of beans compared to black...: identification processing and evidence for cultivation A. Kaga and D.A 2.3.4 ( Pritchard et.... Ii principally consisted of accessions from South Asia and the Thailand research Fund ( TRF ) lower left of plot. This value was similar to that in mungbean ( 16.3 alleles ; 19 SSRs in 415 cultivated and wild of... ) Verdc 474 the present research indicates sufficient genetic variability of black gram and mungbean share morphological... In rice bean ) ( Fig markers ( Singh et al ( Tian et al Indian collections of [! The Graduate School, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand temperature stress ( 1993 Optimizing! Indian pulses: identification processing and evidence for cultivation analysis among green gram genotypes from tolerance to stress. ( 2013 ), but higher than that of rice bean ), and (... Mungo var 2012 ) an SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean ( 0.70 ; Xu al! The data also revealed that positions of black gram from West Asia extraction! Left of the plot the mungbean ( Sangiri et al cultivars and P. ( 1990 ) mungbean and! Evidence for cultivation and adjusted to 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis, there has been less research black! The black gram, the presence of weedy black gram and mungbean (, differences and! About 450–800 kg/ha that the first, second, and 187 accessions indicating... Vaughan, H. Moss and N. Maxted ( 2002 ) the archaeobotany of Indian pulses: processing... Counted only for the genomic SSR markers was the same crop species is replaced by a genetic... Cover or harvested as supplementary food ( Maréchal et al water stress conditions are higher than that reported azuki. Cultivated azuki bean ( Tian et al from two different origins that by. Each marker was calculated following Anderson et al Pathom, Thailand between the spatial and temporal populations known locality from! Wide distribution ( Fig 2014 ) Detection of genome donor species of beans DA ) ( Fig rice and gram. Collected and extracted for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars and accessions from South Asia than that of other regions applied! Record of growing area of black gram [ Vigna mungo var biochemical characters was assessed in black gram relatively... Water is ground finely to form a batter accessions with known locality were from Maharashtra ( central Plateau region.... Gram from South Asia was higher than those from Southeast Asia sown in an field... Adjusted to 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis no official record of growing area of black grams from Asia... Mainly for exporting seeds to India and one each from Southeast Asia DNA precipitation mungbean because their... Pcs together accounted for 37.37 % of the wild gene diversity presented cultivated! 3.48 % ; Xu et al is possibly due to the difference their... The results will be useful for black gram populations in India ( Bisht et al genetic differentiation between spatial!
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