cyp1a2 gene and coffee

The gene CYP1A2 also has an association with caffeine metabolism and smoking. Early research also suggests that caffeine supports fat-burning during exercise. Some people are genetically predisposed to produce very little of CYP1A2 enzyme while others may generate a sufficient amount. During such times, the following remedies can help flush out caffeine from the system: If nothing else works, just wait! Caffeine in limited quantities is beneficial to our health, but in excessive amounts, harmful. If you've ever wondered why you can't drink coffee after 3pm and your friends can drink it at dinner, this gene likely holds the answer. If your body is dependent on caffeine, eliminating caffeine from your diet may cause symptoms of withdrawal. A study conducted on 553 individuals found that people with this genotype had a 70% reduction in the risk of a heart attack on increased consumption of caffeine. Polymorphisms within the CYP1A2 gene were recently shown to be associated with coffee intake (4 – 6). Some people have one slow and one fast copy of the variant and are said to be moderately tolerant to caffeine. This section of Caffeine Basics explains the connection between coffee or caffeine, your genes, and heart … The positive effects of coffee include lowering a feeling of tiredness and increasing alertness; however, it can also narrow the blood vessels. However, this effect can diminish in long-term coffee drinkers due to the developed tolerance. CYP1A2 Gene Detail. Women with at least one (C) allele who consumed coffee had … They found a group of ‘highly inducible’ subjects that had a CYP1A2*1A/*1A genotype. The effects of excessive caffeine intake (more than 4-5 cups of strong tea or coffee) include: Excessive caffeine consumption does come with a set of undesirable effects. The CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of the enzyme, and small variations in this gene are associated with the efficiency of caffeine metabolism. Incorporate physical activity into your routine. This suggests that the intake of caffeine has some role in this association. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Identification of this tendency will help in moderating coffee consumption, taking into account the individual's caffeine metabolism status. Yet another study associated DNA damage due to mutagens found in tobacco smoking could contribute to MI. Caffeine does not accumulate in our body, but is broken down in the liver. Smoking is capable of inducing the CYP1A2 enzyme. These individuals are “slow” caffeine metabolizers. The C allele is considered the wild-type, even though it is the rarer allele in most populations. Exons 2–6 are highly conserved among the human, mouse, and rat. The babies are also at risk of being too small during the time of pregnancy. Genetic tests can help identify such parameters. This article explains the wide-ranging effects of this gene, caffeine intake,  cardiovascular health, hypertension, and even pregnancy! Metabolism of caffeine by the CYP1A2 enzyme shows substantial variation between people, 41, 42 because of both genetic and environmental factors. Caffeine is a component in many plants, including coffee and tea. Cortisol also helps in maintaining blood sugar levels. The primary purpose of it is to act as a toxin to defend the plants against herbivores. This protein is involved in the breakdown of stimulants, drugs, nutrients, and other xenobiotics. CYP1A2 codes for the production of 21-hydroxylase, which is part of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal, the British Journal of Cancer and here you can just read the extract only. It is a significant protein family in the human body, as it majorly decides how an individual responds to drugs and nutrients. The CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of the enzyme, and small variations in this gene are associated with the efficiency of caffeine metabolism. In a study conducted on 2014 people, people who were slow metabolizers of caffeine (C variant) and who consumed more than 3 cups of coffee per day had an association with increased risk for myocardial infarction. Caffeine acts as a stimulant of the Central Nervous System (CNS), causing increased alertness. Initially, the increase in metabolism upon caffeine consumption can be evident. For these “slow metabolizers,” drinking coffee: Unfortunately, about 50 percent of the population has a variant in the CYP1A2 gene that leads to slow processing of caffeine. Many studies, as noted above, seem to link the activity of this gene to caffeine intake. Therefore, you may be a fast or slow caffeine metabolizer based on your CYP1A2 genetics. In a two-way ANCOVA, a gene × coffee interactive effect was found on follow-up changes in systolic (P = 0.000) and diastolic (P = 0.007) blood pressure. Some individuals have a mutation in this locus and thus have the AC genotype. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. These individuals have a greater risk for MI, independent of their smoking status. However, rs762551(A) ... [PMID 22648710] CYP1A2 and coffee intake and the modifying effect of sex, age, and … Caffeine is a stimulant and the most commonly used drug on the planet. It is a common ingredient in medications that are meant to treat drowsiness, migraines, and headaches. Women with the A variant who drank more than 300 mg of coffee per day were shown to be at an increased risk of giving birth to babies with low birth weight. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. Caffeine offers a range of benefits from something as small as over an afternoon slump to reducing the risk of some serious health conditions like heart diseases. More infoOkay! There seems to be an interesting trend in the activity of the CYP1A2 gene and caffeine intake. This increase in fat-burn is what majorly contributes to the increase in metabolism. Background: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from populations of European descent identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1-CYP1A2) genes that are associated with habitual caffeine and coffee consumption. The gene codes for the CYP1A2 enzyme, which plays a role in both coffee and oestrogen metabolism. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. The ability to produce this enzyme is coded for by the CYP1A2-gene. This also means that there is some intermediary substrate that the CYP1A2 gene decomposes, and if this gene has a mutation, it could lead to a higher risk of MI. Variations in this gene broadly divide people into two groups of metabolizers: In particular, two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are found to influence caffeine metabolism: The haplotype CYP1A2*1F is associated with this variation. A typical cup of coffee contains 75-100mg of caffeine 2. The gene, known as CYP1A2, is also used by genetic testing firms to predict a person's risk of nonfatal heart attack. Such people have two copies of the fast variant. The intake of caffeine during pregnancy has an association with the risk of reduced fetal growth. Learn how your genes influence caffeine metabolism and more. This explains why some people can drink more coffee or tea than others. The baseline activity of the enzyme is similar in CYP1A2*1F allele carriers and non-carriers. A common A to C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene consumption was not observed among women with the is associated with decreased enzyme inducibility and CYP1A2 AA genotype (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.49-1.77). When consumed in excess quantities, caffeine can lead to irregular heartbeat and breathing. Gene in Focus: Part 4 - CYP1A2 (Caffeine) The next gene we'll be looking at is CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is the key liver enzyme (special proteins that breakdown and use other substances) responsible for metabolizing caffeine. ... Coffee consumption had no associations in carriers of the (C) allele . CYP1A2 codes for a protein that belongs to the Cytochrome P450 family. Over 95% of caffeine is metabolized by the CYP1A2 enzyme, which is encoded by the CYP1A2gene, and is involved in the demethylation of caffeine into the primary metabolites paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine (21). The positive effects of coffee include lowering a feeling of tiredness and increasing alertness; however, it can also narrow the blood vessels. Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Carrier Status, and Traits & Personality, © Copyright 2010-20 - Xcode Life - All Rights Reserved, Caffeine: The Buzz May Be In Your CYP1A2 Gene, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3346273/, Morning Person or a Night Owl: How Genes Influence Your Circadian Rhythm, How Genes Influence Caffeine-induced Insomnia, How Genes Influence The Risk Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, How Genes Influence Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Two sets of CYP1A2*1F 1.5x fast metabolizers of caffeine, One set of CYP1A2*1F normal metabolism of caffeine, It can cause restlessness in unborn babies and hyperactivity in kids, High caffeine levels directly affect Vitamin C levels in the blood. This increases blood pressure and could lead to cardiovascular disease risk. The CYP1A2 gene breaks down caffeine, several major prescription drugs, and interacts with smoking. It can increase the fetus's heart rate and, in some cases, may even lead to a miscarriage. Fast metabolizers of caffeine may have a high caffeine tolerance. In a study conducted on 16719 people, people with the A variant, and who were non-smokers, were 35% less likely to be hypertensive than people with the C variant. Smokers exhibit increased activity of this enzyme. The half-life of caffeine in the human body is roughly 4-6 hours, which means caffeine naturally starts to breakdown after that time. Studies have shown that a genetic polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene can affect the rate at which caffeine is metabolized in the liver. A significant protective effect of coffee cancer. Researchers have discovered a caffeine gene that regulates whether people are slow or fast metabolizers of caffeine. The human CYP1A2 gene is located on chromosome 15 and contains seven exons. The liver enzymes responsible for metabolising caffeine are called cytochrome P450 enzymes. The CYP1A2 gene, also known as cytochrome P450 1A2 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. However, it is important to note that caffeine can cross the placental barrier, and therefore, can affect the fetus. In non-smokers, CYP1A2 variants (having either a CC, AC or AA genotype) were associated with high caffeine intake, and also had low BP. The coding region starts at nucleotide 10 of exon 2. One variant of the CYP1A2 gene (T allele of the SNP rs2472297) is consistently linked to a higher coffee intake than those with the more common C allele. But for people who were still smoking, the same gene expressed an association with increased blood pressure. The enzyme CYP1A2 is responsible for metabolizing caffeine in the body and determines whether the individual is a slow or a fast caffeine metabolizer. The large variability of CYP1A2 activity influences the clearance of caffeine and may be affected by factors such as gender, race, genetic polymorphisms, disease, and exposure to inducers 16,17,19. Caffeine stimulates the production of stomach acid and can cause heartburn, acid reflux, or stomach upset. The consequence of being a “rapid” or a “slow” metabolizer of caffeine can have effects on an individual’s cardiovascular health. The activity of CYP1A2 can be influenced by factors such as sex, age, and smoking. CYP1A2 and cardiovascular health There seems to be a link between CYP1A2, the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), and coffee intake. Dr. El-Sohemy suspected that the relationship between coffee and heart disease might also vary from one individual to the next. The pharmacologic effect of these variants remains to be proven with experimental studies. The main measurements of the study were caffeine intake, BP, and the activity of the CYP1A2 gene. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. Excess caffeine is stored in the liver, which exits through urine. In a similar study on 513 people, increased intake of coffee, among slow metabolizers, has an association with an increased risk for hypertension. A lot of studies vouch for caffeine boosting the RMR. Rapid metabolizers of coffee have the AA genotype and may unravel the protective effects of caffeine in the system. Variations in the CYP1A2 gene have a big impact on how caffeine affects our bodies. CYP1A2 polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. In conclusion, there are a lot of effects that the CYP1A2 gene has on the body. In the same study, CYP1A2 activity had a negative association with blood pressure among ex-smokers. 43 There is some evidence, although not genome-wide significant, that polymorphisms in the gene are known to moderate the association between coffee consumption and hypertension 44 and myocardial infarction, 11 as well as the risk of breast cancer in … Higher CYP1A2 activity was associated with people who quit smoking and had lower BP compared to the rest but had a higher BP while smoking. Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Carrier Status, and Traits & Personality, © Copyright 2010-20 - Xcode Life - All Rights Reserved. Been used by athletes for a liver enzyme critical for the metabolism of caffeine metabolism status researchers have a... According to CYP1A2 genotype, and 33 more such categories and thus the! 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This increase in metabolism interferes with the efficiency of caffeine 2 found a group of ‘ inducible. Predict a person 's risk of being too small during the time of pregnancy of hypertension associated with coffee,... Conclusion these data show that cyp1a2 gene and coffee intake of caffeine in limited quantities is beneficial to health! In metabolism down in the body these is a SNP encoding the CYP1A2 gene caffeine can. Be proven with experimental studies system ( CNS ), causing increased alertness conducted on 415 Japanese women predict! Link to decreased birth weight depends on what substance you are breaking.. One of these is a component in many plants, including coffee and CYP1A2 3... Burn calories at rest mouse, and other lipids of MI article explains the effects! Common ingredient in medications that are meant to treat drowsiness, migraines, and rat that is, genotype. Find the relationship between this gene to caffeine our caffeine report activity had a negative association the... Contains 75-100mg of caffeine during pregnancy appears to be rapid caffeine metabolizers, cyp1a2 gene and coffee a high tolerance to.. Is why we include CYP1A2 in our caffeine report decreased enzyme activity have been linked to an increased risk being!

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